03.02.17.04 Reagents for tumour marker determination
Reagents for tumour marker determination
Product category: Tumor markers
Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP/ADFP) is associated with the globule surface membrane material. Adipophilin (also known as PLIN2) has been shown to detect the expression of ADFP in sebocytes and sebaceous lesions (1-4). Sebaceous carcinoma is a relatively uncommon cutaneous malignancy which can mimic other malignant neoplasms, such as basal and squamous cell carcinomas, as well as benign processes, such as chalazions and blepharitis, resulting in delayed diagnosis and suboptimal treatment (2). It has been reported that adipophilin was expressed in 16 of 16 (100%) sebaceous adenomas with a specific pattern of membranous staining with strong uptake at the periphery of intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles. Of 25 sebaceous carcinomas, 23 (92%) were also labeled with a similar pattern (2). Additionally, in cases of poorly differentiated sebaceous carcinoma in which sebaceous differentiation could not have been reliably interpreted in H&E sections, adipophilin highlighted sebocytes and xanthelasmas (2). Metastatic renal cell carcinomas were also stained weakly to moderately positive for adipophilin (2). Adipophilin may be a useful marker in the identification of intracytoplasmic lipids, as seen in sebaceous lesions. It is especially helpful in identifying intracytoplasmic lipid vesicles in poorly differentiated sebaceous carcinomas in challenging cases such as small periocular biopsy specimens (2,3). In addition, adipophilin has also been associated with lipid metabolism in Burkitt lymphoma and showed strong expression in the majority of Burkitt lymphomas (4). Adipophilin was also shown to be upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma and therefore may serve as a prospective marker for lung adenocarcinoma (5).
α-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), also known as P504S, is a peroxisomal and mitochondrial enzyme that plays a role in bile acid synthesis and β oxidation of branched chain fatty acids (1).
AMACR was initially identified from a cDNA library as a gene that is overexpressed in human prostate cancer; with little or no expression in normal or benign prostate glands (2-3). In immunohistochemistry, AMACR has been shown to be a marker of prostatic adenocarcinoma (2-5).
Additionally, prostate glands involved in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), have been found to express AMACR; whereas AMACR was nearly undetectable in benign glands (5-6).
AMACR (RM), 3X is being discontinued. We will continue to offer these products until 06/30/16 or until current inventory is depleted, whichever occurs first. Biocare does offer AMACR (RM) or AMACR (RM), 2X, catalog numbers APA3024, OAA3024 or APA3016 as a substitute.
α-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR Antibody), also known as P504S, is a peroxisomal and mitochondrial enzyme that plays a role in bile acid synthesis and β-oxidation of branched chain fatty acids. In immunohistochemistry, AMACR Antibody has been shown to be a specific marker of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, prostate glands involved in PIN have been found to express AMACR, whereas AMACR was nearly undetectable in benign glands. AMACR + CK5/14 may be used to assess neoplasia in prostate biopsies. AMACR Antibody stains the majority of prostate cancer; however, AMACR has been shown to stain many other types of carcinomas such as hepatomas, breast carcinomas, pancreatic and islet tumors.
CD103 antibody recognizes the integrin subunit CD103 cell surface antigen, which is characteristically expressed in hairy cell leukemia (HCL), a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (1-3). CD103 [EP206] has demonstrated reactivity in FFPE (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) tissue, eliminating the need for flow cytometric analysis or frozen section IHC, making it a valuable addition to an immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for the diagnosis of HCL (1). Other antibodies that have been used in conjunction with CD103 for the detection of HCL include CD25, TIA-1, DBA44 and CD11c (2-3). Intraepithelial CD8 (+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) that express CD103 have been shown to be strongly associated with patient survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) (4).
CD138/syndecan-1 is an excellent marker for identifying plasma cells, as CD138 is a transmembrane heparin proteoglycan present on the surface membrane of plasma cells that remains active in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bone marrow sections. Other hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells and lymphoplasmacytoid lymphomas in bone marrow are CD138 negative (1). CD138 is also expressed in fibroblasts, keratinocytes and normal hepatocytes (1).
The Ki-67 antibody identifies a nuclear antigen, which is associated with cell proliferation. It is found throughout the cell cycle in the G1, S, G2, and M phases; but not in the GO phase. It is commonly used to grade the proliferation index of tumors (2).
As CD138 is localized to the cell membrane, it can be paired with nuclear prognostic markers, such as Ki-67, in double-marker immunostaining reactions without overlap of the chromogenic signals. In multiple myeloma, a CD138 + Ki-67 IHC double stain was shown to be more sensitive and accurate for myeloma cell proliferation assessment than cytogenetic methods (3).
Biocare Medical is an innovator in developing and supplying world class automated immunohistochemistry instrumentation, and the full range of reagents for IHC lab testing. Biocare is the market leader in Multiplex IHC development, solving difficult clinical problems. The company’s customers include clinical histology laboratories, pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies, as well as academic, government, military, and other non-profit laboratories. Biocare Medical offers an expanding portfolio of integrated products to address the rapidly growing cancer and infectious disease markets using tissue immunostaining and in situ hybridization methods. Biocare Medical is based in Concord, CA, and has a global distribution network.