Nanostructures called BRIGHTs (top left)
seek out biomarkers on cells (bottom
right) and then beam brightly to reveal
their locations;© Washington University
in St. Louis
And they covered by a thin shell of gold that spontaneously forms a dodecahedron.
The probes consist of gold nanoparticles covered with molecules called Raman reporters, in turn covered by a thin shell of gold that spontaneously forms a dodecahedron. The Raman reporters are molecules whose atoms respond to a probe laser by scattering light at characteristic wavelengths. The shell and core create an electromagnetic hotspot in the gap between them that boosts the reporters’ emission by a factor of nearly a trillion.
BRIGHTs shine about 1.7 x 1011 more brightly than isolated Raman reporters and about 20 times more intensely than the next-closest competitor probe, says Srikanth Singamaneni, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis. Singamaneni and his postdoctoral research associate Naveen Gandra, tried several different probe designs before settling on BRIGHTS.
Singamaneni’s lab has worked for years with Raman spectroscopy, a spectroscopic technique that is used to study the vibrational modes (bending and stretching) of molecules. Laser light interacts with these modes and the molecule then emits light at higher or lower wavelengths that are characteristic of the molecule. Spontaneous Raman scattering, as this phenomenon is called, is by nature very weak, but 30 years ago scientists accidently stumbled on the fact that it is much stronger if the molecules are adsorbed on roughened metallic surfaces. Then they discovered that molecules attached to metallic nanoparticles shine even brighter than those attached to rough surfaces.
The intensity boost from surface-enhanced Raman scattering, or SERS, is potentially huge. “It’s well-known that if you sandwich Raman reporters between two plasmonic materials, such as gold or silver, you are going to see dramatic Raman enhancement,” Singamaneni says. Originally his team tried to create intense electromagnetic hot spots by sticking smaller particles onto a larger central particle, creating core-satellite assemblies that look like daisies. “But we realized these assemblies are not ideal for bioimaging,” he says, “because the particles were held together by weak electrostatic interactions and the assemblies were going to come apart in the body.”
Next they tried using Click chemistry to make stronger covalent bonds between the satellites and the core. “We had some success with those assemblies,” Singamaneni says, “but in the meantime we had started to wonder if we couldn’t make an electromagnetic hot spot within a single nanoparticle rather than among particles. “It occurred to us that if we put Raman reporters between the core and shell of a single particle could we create an internal hotspot.”
COMPAMED.de; Source: Washington University in St. Louis